Interesting skin hiv1 and hiv2 symptoms that everyone needs to know – Rashes on the skin may indicate HIV early or late, causing itchy, red, and painful rashes with pink outbreaks and flat, red skin with bumps.
Introduction of skin hiv1 and hiv2 symptoms
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Difference between HIV – 1 and HIV – 2
|HIV – 1||HIV – 2|
|This strain is more widespread and can be found everywhere.||West Africa is where you’ll mostly find this strain.|
|It is more likely that this strain will deteriorate and spread.||Many infected people with this strain remain lifelong non-progressors because it is less likely to progress. Progression is slower.|
|The average level of immune system activation is higher.||The average level of immune system activation is lower.|
|During progression, HIV-1 has lower CD4 counts than HIV-2.||This strain has greater CD4 levels as it advances.|
|Plasma viral loads are higher.||Plasma viral loads are lower|
An overview of HIV
HIV is a sexually transmitted virus that spreads through body fluids, pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding.
HIV weakens the immune system, leading to AIDS, a life-threatening condition. Early detection and timely treatment are crucial for protecting health. Untreated HIV can progress to chronic and severe AIDS.
About HIV-1 and HIV-2
The human immunodeficiency virus comes in two different main varieties. The most common kind of HIV-1, was the first identified. HIV-2 differs genetically from HIV-1 by more than 55%.
Although the numbers there are still tiny, India is seeing an increase in the prevalence of HIV-2, which is most prevalent in Western Africa. Few numbers of instances have also been reported from Portugal, France, other European nations, the UK, and the Americas; most of these cases have involved people of West African descent or their sexual partners.
Major virus types are categorized into groups, subtypes, and clades, with HIV-1 having main groups M and HIV-2 subtypes A and B.
HIV-1 and HIV-2 antigens differ enough from one another genetically that if a diagnostic test is created just to detect HIV-1, it will not reliably detect HIV-2. However, some tests can detect both forms of the virus.
When testing someone who has lived in a country where HIV-2 is prevalent or who has had a sexual partner from one of those countries, it is crucial to utilise a test that is sensitive to the virus.
Additionally, testing particularly for HIV-2 might be acceptable if a person displays clinical symptoms of HIV infection (such as repeated opportunistic infections) but does not test positive to a test that is only sensitive to HIV-1.
NNRTI drugs like efavirenz, rilpivirine, doravirine, etravirine, and nevirapine are ineffective against HIV-2; regimens rely on integrase or protease inhibitors.
What is HIV-1
HIV-1 is the most common and pathogenic strain, divided into major and minor groups. It has 39 ORFs in six possible reading frames, but only a few are functional.
Symptoms of HIV-1
Early on, HIV may not show any symptoms. When symptoms do occur, some people mistake them for the flu or mono. Typical early signs include:
- throat pain.
- joint discomfort and muscle soreness.
- Swollen lymph nodes and glands.
- A skin rash.
A person may experience symptoms from a few days to many weeks after becoming infected. Early symptoms often disappear in two to three weeks.
An infected person may experience no further symptoms for several years after the initial symptoms have subsided. After a while, symptoms return and then persist. These signs often consist of:
- lymph nodes with swelling.
- extreme fatigue.
- Loss of weight.
- Sweat at night
How is HIV type 1 detected?
The diagnosis of HIV-1 can be made using several assays. Most frequently, blood drawn from an arm vein or a finger prick is used for these tests:
Antibody tests detect antibodies to HIV, proteins produced by the immune system in response to foreign invaders.
The test detects HIV antibodies and p24 protein before antibodies develop.
Nucleic acid tests (NATs).
A NAT detects virus genetic material in blood samples and viral load. Each test has a window period, and healthcare professionals consider this during testing. A second test may be necessary to confirm a negative result.
How is HIV-1 treatment executed away?
Additional tests are carried out both after an individual is diagnosed with HIV-1 and all through their therapy. These consist of:
Reduces the level of your virus to undetectable
Your viral load (the amount of HIV-1 in your blood) may become undetectable if you take HIV medication. Undetectable denotes a virus load in your blood that is too low to be detected by a test. Achieving and maintaining an undetectable viral load is a sign that your therapy is effective.
Increase in CD4 cell count
When you have HIV-1, the virus uses CD4 cells to replicate and propagate throughout your body, killing off CD4 cells in the process. (Immune system cells called CD4 cells assist your body in battling illnesses.) Your immune system will be compromised as a result, increasing your risk of getting sick.
HIV-1 medications can aid in slowing the virus’s destruction of your CD4 cells. By doing this, you may avoid getting sick.
Testing for drug resistance.
HIV-1 can develop resistance to some antiretroviral medications. Drug resistance testing is thus carried out to assist in determining which antiretroviral medications can be used for therapy.
What is HIV-2?
The retroviruses HIV-1 and HIV-2 are unique and come from two different primate species. Both strains have identical methods of transmission, and contracting either strain can cause the development of AIDS.
The sooty mangabey monkey is believed to be the source of HIV-2, with eight subtypes. India’s HIV-2 cases are increasing, while West Africa has been the primary location. European countries with historical ties to West Africa, Portugal, and France also report HIV-2 infections.
Symptoms of HIV-2
The symptoms listed below are among the indications and symptoms of HIV-2 documented in various sources:
- For many years, some people may not exhibit any symptoms.
- Extreme tiredness
- The rash is a warning sign.
- Flu-like symptoms are a warning sign.
- Compromised immune system
- CD4+ count is low
- Chronically enlarged lymph nodes
- Continually sore lymph nodes
- Rapid loss of weight
- Chronic diarrhoea
- Breathing difficulty
- Wet cough
- Fluctuating fevers
- Sweats at night
- Higher prevalence of infections and other diseases
- Purple patches on mucous membranes Purple dots on skin
- Oral sores
- Rigid muscles
- Aching muscles
- Decreased mental capacity
- Ability to contract an opportunistic infection
- Opportunistic bacterial infection susceptibility
- Opportunistic Mycobacterial Infection Susceptibility
- Opportunistic fungal infection susceptibility
- Vulnerability to malignancies associated with AIDS
- Opportunistic protozoal infection susceptibility
- Opportunistic viral infection susceptibility
- HIV-positive test outcome
- Increased MAC (Mycobacterium avium complex) Sensitivity
- Salmonellosis vulnerability is increased
- Increased risk of contracting Syphilis
- Increased risk of contracting neurosyphilis
- Increased risk of contracting tuberculosis
- An increased risk of developing Bacillary angiomatosis
- Increased risk of contracting Aspergillosis
- Heightened vulnerability to candidemia
- Increased risk of contracting coccidioidomycosis
- Heightened risk of developing cryptococcal meningitis
- Histoplasmosis vulnerability is increased
- Increased risk of developing Kaposi’s sarcoma
- An increased risk of developing Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Primary central nervous system lymphoma risk is increased
- Increased likelihood of developing invasive cervical cancer
- Isosporiasis susceptibility and cryptosporidiosis susceptibility both increased
- Microsporidiosis susceptibility is more prevalent
- Greater propensity for toxoplasmosis
- Increased vulnerability to pneumonia caused by Pneumocystis carinii
- Enhanced sensitivity to the cytomegalovirus
- Enhanced vulnerability to the hepatitis virus
- Elevated risk of contracting Herpes simplex
- Elevated risk of contracting Herpes zoster
- Heightened sensitivity to the Human Papillomavirus
- An increased risk of contracting Molluscum contagiosum
- An increased risk of developing oral hairy leukoplakia
- Increased risk of developing aphthous ulcers
- A higher risk of developing idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura
- Enhanced vulnerability to pelvic inflammatory disease Enhanced sensitivity to listeriosis
- Increased risk of developing Burkitt’s lymphoma
- Greater risk of developing immunoblastic lymphoma
Treatment of HIV -2
Antiretroviral therapy is recommended for HIV-2 prevention and transmission after diagnosis. Antiretroviral drugs like NNRTIs and enfuvirtide are ineffective for treating HIV-2, despite their potential for HIV-1 treatment.
CCR5 inhibitor maraviroc’s efficacy is uncertain; protease inhibitors lopinavir and darunavir are most useful in HIV-2.
HIV-2 treatment involves two NRTIs and one INSTI, similar to HIV-1, or two NRTIs plus a boosted protease inhibitor. HIV-2 antiretroviral therapy users should regularly monitor their quantitative HIV-2 levels to assess their response.
Major Points about HIV – 1 and HIV – 2
- HIV infection develops gradually without therapy with HIV medications and worsens over time.
- Acute HIV infection, chronic HIV infection, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are the three stages of HIV infection.
- Antiretroviral therapy, or ART, can slow or stop HIV from moving from one stage to the next, but HIV cannot be cured. Patients can live longer, better lives because to HIV drugs.
The two most prevalent strains of this virus are HIV-1 and HIV-2. Most HIV-positive individuals have HIV-1.
While HIV-2 tends to grow more slowly and has a lower incidence of transmission than HIV-1, both kinds of HIV damage the immune system.
There are some discrepancies between how doctors identify and treat HIV-1 and HIV-2 due to the genetic variances between the two viruses.
FAQs (Frequently Asked Question)
What does HIV-1 mean?
HIV-1, the most common HIV type, destroys CD4 cells, causing AIDS, and affecting the immune system.
What distinguishes HIV-1 from HIV-2?
HIV-2 develops slower and has a lower transmission rate than HIV-1, causing long-term, manageable health conditions with effective treatment.
What is type 2 HIV?
HIV-2 is an enveloped retrovirus causing human infection, endemic to West Africa, with globalization causing worldwide spread and significant morbidity and mortality.